GIPHY / istock / getty

What Is Premarket Stock Trading?

U.S. securities markets ring the opening bell at 9:30 a.m. EST, Monday-Friday. But many brokerages permit premarket trading as early as 4 a.m. These extended trading hours offer flexibility and opportunity—and increased risk. 

🤔 Understanding premarket stock trading

Stocks and ETFs listed on major exchanges (like the Nasdaq and NYSE) can begin trading before the market officially opens.

Investors can place orders via their broker’s electronic communications network (ECN), an electronic exchange that matches buyers and sellers. Some brokers open their ECN as early as 4 a.m., while others wait until 8 a.m. 

Because premarket trading often experiences low volume and high price volatility, brokers may require the use of limit orders. Limit orders allow investors to set minimum and/or maximum trade prices, slightly curbing price risk. But if an ECN can’t meet the limit price by market open, the order will likely be canceled. 

Pros of premarket trading

  • Greater flexibility - If your schedule conflicts with regular market hours, you can still make hands-on decisions in the premarket session. 
  • An opportunity to beat the crowd - Premarket trading gives investors a chance to trade on news that occurs overnight or before market open, including:
  • Corporate earnings
  • New monetary or industry policies
  • Geopolitical developments
  • (Potentially) favorable prices - Investing premarket can (but don’t always) offer the best prices of the day. 

Cons of premarket trading

  • Limited liquidity - Fewer investors trade during premarket hours, leading to lowered trading volumes. Many small-cap and niche stocks may not have sufficient interest to trade at all premarket. 
  • No price obligations - During regular hours, broker-dealers must obtain the best possible prices across exchanges and networks. But premarket, investors may be limited to prices within their broker’s ECN. 
  • Price volatility - Premarket prices can swing on a dime and often diverge substantially from prices in the regular session. 
  • Wider bid-ask spreads - Due to low liquidity and high volatility, premarket orders tend to have wider spreads between bid and ask prices. 
  • Expert competition - Premarket trading is dominated by institutional, professional and wealthy investors with deep pockets and access to the timeliest information, putting retail investors at a disadvantage. 

What this means for you

Some investors engage in premarket trading to “get ahead” of the regular session. But others use premarket activity as a gauge for the later session; sometimes, premarket price and volume changes foreshadow the day’s trends. (However, that’s not a given –the market may post a sudden turnaround instead.) 

For most investors, premarket trading offers few benefits on outsized risk. Aside from limits imposed by brokers and ECNs, you also have to contend with low volumes, high volatility and competition with large institutions. Generally, you’ll see better long-term results by waiting just a few hours for the regular session to open. 

As a rule, we here at discourage short-term trading; we’re big fans of long-term strategies that build lasting wealth. And with our AI-backed, data-driven Investment Kits, we can help you do just that—without taking unnecessary premarket risks. 

Disclosures is the trade name of Quantalytics Holdings, LLC., LLC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Quantalytics Holdings, LLC ("Quantalytics"). Quantalytics offers automated financial advice tools through Quantalytics Investment Advisors, LLC ("QAI"), an SEC-registered investment advisor. QIA’s investment advisory services are ONLY available only to residents of the United States. Disclosures concerning QIA’s investment advisory services are available on its Form ADV filed with the SEC. The content in this newsletter is for informational purposes only and does not constitute a comprehensive description of's investment advisory services.

Hands-free approach to investing

Our AI manages your money with commission-free, institutional-grade, AI-powered investment kits.